View and Download the solved questions, solved numerical problems or 9th Class Physics notes of Chapter 8 “Thermal Properties of Matter” of Punjab Textbook Board. These 9th class physics notes of 8th Chapter are according to the new syllabus (2013) of Punjab Boards including Lahore Board, Gujranwala Board, Sahiwal Board, Rawalpindi Board, Faisalabad Board, Multan Board, Bahawalpur Board, Federal Board, DG Khan Board and Sargodha Board. Students of 9th Class of all these board can facilitate from the physics notes given below. You can also download 9th Class Physics Chapter 8 Solved Questions and Numericals Problems.

### Unit 8: Thermal Properties of Matter

By studying this chapter students will be able to: Define temperature (as quantity which determines the direction of flow of thermal energy). Define heat (as the energy transferred resulting from the temperature difference between two objects). List basic thermometric properties for a material to construct a thermometer. Convert the temperature from one scale to another (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin scales). Describe rise in temperature of a body in terms of an increase in its internal energy. Define the terms heat capacity and specific heat capacity. Describe heat of fusion and heat of vaporization (as energy transfer without a change of temperature for change of state). Describe experiments to determine heat of fusion and heat of vaporization of ice and water respectively by sketching temperature-time graph on heating ice. Explain the process of evaporation and the difference between boiling and evaporation. Explain that evaporation causes cooling. List the factors which influence surface evaporation. Describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids (linear and volumetric expansion). Explain thermal expansion of liquids (real and apparent expansion). Solve numerical problems based on the mathematical relations learnt in this unit.